Posted on

Oregon: Lewis and Clark Trail at Fort Clatsop

Before leaving Oregon to Washington, I would make a day stop at Fort Clatsop. The fort that was the winter encampment for the Corps of Discovery from December 1805 to March 1806. Fort Clatsop is a unit of the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks where the trailheads for the Fort to Sea Trail and Netul Trail are located. And just to make it clear, because I have been asked before if I would hike the Lewis and Clark trail, one cannot hike such trail because the Lewis and Clark Trail voyage of exploration was mostly done via waterways. However, one can hike the trails that were created to access supplies to maintain the needs for the daily life of the fort inhabitants.

Statue of Sacajawea at Fort Clatsop, Astoria - Oregon
Statue of Sacajawea at Fort Clatsop, Astoria – Oregon

 

Map location of Fort Clatsop in the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks, Oregon
Map location of Fort Clatsop in the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks, Oregon

The day before heading to Fort Clatsop, I spent a quiet day in Astoria, Oregon. My day began with an interesting, exciting surprise encounter at a café in Astoria. After looking online for a local place to have brunch, based on reviews and recommendations I decided to go to the Astoria Coffee House and Bistro. The coffee house was busy when I arrived and because I was by myself, the hostess asked me if I wouldn’t mind to sit at the bar because otherwise the wait time for a table would be close to an hour. Not only I agreed to her suggestion, I preferred to sit at the bar because I wouldn’t like to sit at a table by myself. Someone sitting across the bar caught my attention because of his attire. His outfit seemed to be from the 1920s or 1930s. Also, he looked familiar to me. Being so far away from home in New York, I did not think that I would bump into someone I knew and quickly the possibility that I knew that person. He was with to other people with whom he was having an animated conversation. His laughter was adorable and captivating. The bartender at one point leaned toward me asking me if I recognized the young man across the bar? As I responded that he did look familiar but I did not think I knew him, she said “yes, you know him! That’s Elijah Wood!” Oh my God! It was him! I was having breakfast a few feet away from my idol from the Lord of the Rings! And yes, I was dying to go ask him for a selfie, but I am too shy for that. Just when I was leaving the coffee house, he returned by himself and left again only to disappear in the quiet streets of a Sunday morning in Astoria. By the way; breakfast was fantastic and probably the best Bloody Mary I ever had.

 

At Fort Clatsop in the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks, Oregon
At Fort Clatsop in the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks, Oregon

 

Fort Clatsop in the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks, Oregon
Fort Clatsop in the Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks, Oregon

On Monday morning I took my tent down, packed and left Fort Stevens to Fort Clatsop for a visit of the Lewis and Clark Fort and day hike of the Netul Trail and a portion of the Fort to Sea Trail. The visit to the fort was educational, rewarding, and relaxing. There wasn’t a lot of visitors on that day and the park was quiet and peaceful. Seeing firsthand the fort installations and learning about the challenges of living in the fort during the long Winters of the Pacific Northwest, sitting on the beds that Lewis and his expedition crew once occupied was an incredible experience. The fort which is kept in incredible conditions 200 years later, offers an insight in the history of the mission of exploration, study, and expansion of the continental United States.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition that began in May 1804 reaching the Pacific Ocean in September 1806, known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States. It began near St. Louis, made its way westward, and passed through the continental divide to reach the mouth of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. The Corps of Discovery comprised a selected group of U.S. Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend, Second Lieutenant William Clark. Having Clark in the expedition was one of the conditions imposed by Lewis to accept leading the endeavor presented to him by President Jefferson.

William Clark resigned his commission on July 4, 1796 and retired due to poor health, although he was only 26 years old. He returned to Mulberry Hill, his family’s plantation near Louisville. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis recruited Clark, then age 33, to share command of the newly formed Corps of Discovery.  A slave owner known to deal harshly with his slaves, he brought York, one of his slaves, with him. The indigenous nations treated York with respect, and many of the Native Americans were interested in his appearance, which “played a key role in diplomatic relations”. Although Clark was refused a promotion to the rank of captain when Jefferson asked the Senate to appoint him, at Lewis’ insistence, he exercised equal authority, and continued the mission. Clark concentrated chiefly on the drawing of maps, the management of the expedition’s supplies, and leading hunting expeditions for game.

Fort Clatsop at the Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon
Fort Clatsop at the Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon

President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the expedition shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 to explore and to map the newly acquired territory, to find a practical route across the western half of the continent, and to establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it. The campaign’s secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area’s plants, animal life, and geography, and to establish trade with local Native American tribes. With maps, sketches, and journals in hand, the expedition returned to St. Louis to report its findings to Jefferson. An interesting anecdote and aspect of the expedition is that when Lewis and his men reached the Pacific Ocean, only half of the expedition mission was completed. According to President Jefferson, the other half was to make sure that all the discoveries, diaries, and notes were brought back to him.

After two months on the road and hundreds miles of hiking, my hair and beard had grown and friends back home were starting to call me the ‘mountain man’ and ‘caveman’. I had shed any fat that I may have had in my body. At that point I had to make a stop at REI in Portland to purchase new hiking pants because my waist had gone down to a mere 26 inches. The planned road trip route was now in question due to the weather conditions in the Pacific Northwest’s National Parks. Before crossing the state line into the State of Washington, the last stop in Oregon was mainly cultural and recreational for me. The visit to Fort Clatsop fit in that category, but I could not resist the temptation to hike a few miles that day.

Vegetation along the Fort to Sea Trail - Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon
Vegetation along the Fort to Sea Trail – Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon

I started by hiking the 1.5 mile Netul River Trail southbound from Fort Clatsop to the Netul Landing, which marks the final landing of one of the final destination branches of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Vegetation along the Fort to Sea Trail - Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon
Vegetation along the Fort to Sea Trail – Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon

The graveled trail that runs along the river is a flat, ease terrain which is used by most of the visitors to the fort. On that morning, I encountered a few of the visitors while hiking the Netul Trail which connects to the 6.5 mile Fort to Sea Trail, which is a lot more challenging trail. On this trail a higher hiking skills level is required as portions of the trail has abrupt elevations followed by sudden drops. In other words, it is full of ups and downs! The round trip to the sea is 13 miles. This was the trail used by the fort residents to reach the pacific on their fishing trips in the Spring and Summer when they stored food for the long Winter.

The Fort to Sea Trail winds past forests, coastal bogs, farms, an active military training center and crosses a mini-version of Portland’s Fremont Bridge before reaching Sunset Beach State Recreation Site. The crossing of U.S. 101 in via an underpass. With one end on federal land and the other on state, and with other land holders in between, the trail is a metaphor for what makes the Lewis and Clark park unique in the Pacific Northwest. The vegetation here is abundantly green and full of vitality. With part of its natural trees reintroduced to recreate the original habitat after the ending of the logging industry, the park’s forest is managed by both the National Parks Service and State Parks.

Vegetation along the Fort to Sea Trail - Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon
Vegetation along the Fort to Sea Trail – Lewis and Clark State and National Historical Parks, Oregon

It was quite late in the day when I returned to the fort. I was exhausted because in order to complete the day’s 15 miles hike I had to keep a fast pace. However, I still wanted to get to the Puget Sound area in Washington, about four hours away if I stopped at least once for a thirty minutes break. Although I had no intention to spend too much time in Seattle, I wanted to visit a couple of friends in town. As I crossed the state line into Washington, there was still some daylight left and the driving conditions were good. At one point I came into a foggy and rainy area, reminding me that I had reached the Pacific Northwest.

From this point on, relying on weather forecasts was just as suggestion. Being close to a rain forest where weather conditions can and do change suddenly, and can display different patterns in just a few miles due to different altitudes and other variables, would almost certainly bring a few surprises. Nonetheless, I felt that I was prepared to adjust my plans and adapt to nature’s whims. Before moving to New York, I had lived in Seattle for five years and I was accustomed to the weather in the Pacific Northwest.

It was past ten when I arrived at my friend Raquel’s house about thirty minutes southeast of Seattle, where I would spend a couple of days catching up and taking a break from the woods.

 

 

Fort Stevens: Camping, Hiking, and History on the Oregon Shores

Bright Angel Trail – Grand Canyon

South Kaibab Trail – Grand Canyon

Posted on

Fort Stevens: Camping, Hiking, and History on the Oregon Shores

Destination, Fort Stevens! My last camping and hiking spot in Oregon before crossing over to Washington, was a relatively short drive away from Portland. I was looking forward to camping and hiking on the Oregon shores for a couple of days. I had not been camping nor hiking since I had left Point Reyes four days earlier. On that Sunday morning, the sun was out and it was a beautiful day for hiking. The weather forecast for the next few days was perfect! However, the tiny itchy spot on my eyelid had now swollen and it was making it difficult for me to drive, as my left eye was half shut. Before looking for medical help I had to check-in and set up my tent. Being that it was a Sunday, I had to look for a clinic or go to the emergency room.

I arrived at Fort Stevens around two in the afternoon. After setting up the tent I drove to the town of Astoria hoping to find a clinic, but because of being Sunday all I could find was a sympathetic pharmacist who told me not to go to the emergency room. She advised me to wait another day or so because she said that the center of the boil was about to pop! Returning from Astoria, I found the campsite invaded by an army of mosquitoes. The firewood supply man drove by and I made sure I would have plenty to burn to keep the insects away! I even sprayed the outer tent with repellent to try and keep them away.

Shipwreck of Peter Iredale at Fort Stevens State Park - Hammond, Oregon
Shipwreck of Peter Iredale at Fort Stevens State Park – Hammond, Oregon

After make preparations for the evening, I hiked to the beach to watch the sunset. The wind brought ashore a cold breeze. It was, in fact, quite cold! However, despite the cold the crowd was growing rapidly. They came prepared! Most of the sunset watchers brought blankets and were dressed for cold weather. A photo shooting that had been taking place by the Peter Iredale wreckage was reaching its climax. A few photographers were setting up their equipment at strategic locations on the beach and on the dunes.

Peter Iredale shipwreck - Fort Stevens, Oregon
Peter Iredale shipwreck – Fort Stevens, Oregon

Fort Stevens was in operation for 84 years, from the Civil War to World War II. Today, this historic landmark in the Northwest offers camping, beach combing, fresh water and lake swimming, hiking trails, wildlife viewing, a historic shipwreck, and a historic military fort. Fort Stevens is unique and diverse. It’s unique because it is the only Civil War era earthen fort in the West Coast. It also has many early twentieth century concrete artillery gun batteries; including a rare battery that served as a command center during World War II. The park, which today has a network of 9 miles of bicycle trails and 6 miles of hiking trails in a diverse habitat of spruce and hemlock forests, wetlands, dunes, and shore pine areas, was named after Union Army Major General Isaac I Stevens. Major General Stevens was the first territorial governor of Washington, who died in 1862 at the Battle of Chantilly.

The original earthen fort was completed in 1865 to protect the mouth of the Columbia River from a possible British Army invasion from the north and from confederate gun boats from the south during the Civil War. A possible English invasion from Canada, in case the British joined the Confederate side during the Civil War, was seen as an eminent threat and Fort Stevens was an imposing line of defense. The fort became the only coastal defense during the Spanish-American War, World War I, and World War II. It also gained the distinction of being the only American military installation to have been attacked during time of war since the war of 1812, when on June 21, 1942 it was attacked by a Japanese submarine.

Slowly decaying and disappearing, the wreckage of Peter Iredale sits as a monument grounded on the beach creating a great background for photographers and sunset watchers. Having ran ashore on October 25, 1906, she was 285 feet long, four-masted steel bark sailing vessel. The Peter Iredale was built in Maryport, England, in 1890 and owned by British shipping firm Iredale & Porter. On September 26, 1906, the Iredale left Salina Cruz, Mexico, bound for Portland, where it was to pick up a cargo of wheat for the United Kingdom. Despite encountering heavy fog, they managed to safely reach the mouth of the Columbia River early in the morning of October 25. The captain of the ship, H. Lawrence, later recalled that, as they waited for a pilot, “a heavy southeast wind blew and a strong current prevailed. Before the vessel could be veered around, she was in the breakers and all efforts to keep her off were unavailing.” The Iredale ran aground at Clatsop Beach, hitting so hard that three of her masts snapped from the impact. Fortunately, none of the crew were seriously injured. Captain Lawrence ordered that the ship be abandoned, and rockets were launched to signal for help.

The lifesaving station at Point Adams quickly responded, sending a team of men to rescue the crew. It was a dangerous task, but the lifesavers managed to bring all twenty-seven crewmen, including two stowaways, safely to shore. William K. Inman, one of the lifesavers who helped Captain Lawrence ashore, remembered that the red-bearded captain stood stiffly at attention, saluted his ship, and said “May God bless you and may your bones bleach in these sands.” He then turned and addressed his men with a bottle of whisky in his hand. “Boys,” he said, “have a drink.” The British Naval Court later ruled that the sudden wind shift and the strong current were responsible for the stranding of the ship, and that the captain and his officers were “in no wise to blame.”

The wrecked bark became an immediate tourist attraction. The day after the ship ran ashore the Oregon Journal reported that the wreck “proved a strong attraction…and in spite of the gale that was raging scores flocked to the scene of the disaster.” They noted that the Astoria & Columbia River Railroad was already planning to run excursion trains to the site.
Although the ship has been broken up by wave, wind, and sand over the years, the wreck of the Peter Iredale continues to be a popular tourist attraction. It is the most accessible shipwreck of the Pacific Northwest graveyard. Undoubtedly, my favorite attraction. Perhaps, knowing that in a few years all that will remain of Peter Iredale are the photos and memories, I returned to the same spot a few times during my visit to the park to watch the sunset.

Quiet time camping at Fort Stevens State Park, Oregon
Quiet time camping at Fort Stevens State Park, Oregon

 

It’s Better Outside

 

From Coast to Coast